Can ceramics replace metals for waste encapsulation?

The use of ceramics can be traced back to the early history of mankind.

Archaeological research has shown that the first ceramic figures were formed and fired more than 24,000 years ago. In Central Europe, the first useful vessels were manufactured between 7,000 and 8,000 years ago.

For the intended purpose of waste encapsulation the most promising and encouraging message is:

For thousands of years, ceramic products survived under non-ideal conditions, in near- surface deposits or even under seawater.

For comparison, the blue bars in the graphic visualize the required life expectancies mentioned in the previous table.

Taking the survival chances of the more or less simple antique pottery, we have good reasons to trust in the long-term behaviour of modern high-tech ceramics!